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    For Patients with Cardiovascular Disorders

High Blood Pressure

Blood pressure (BP) or hypertension is the pressure exerted by blood against the artery walls each time the heart beats. It is measured as systolic and diastolic pressures, i.e. blood pressure when the heart beats, and blood pressure in between beats, when the heart is at rest. Normal BP is ≤120 (systolic blood pressure)/80 (diastolic blood pressure) mmHg. High blood pressure is a condition that occurs when the pressure of blood in the blood vessels is ≥140/90 mmHg.

Blood pressure varies throughout the day and depends on the level of your activity. It decreases during sleep and rises with excitation, anxiety and activity.

In adults, blood pressure can be classified into the following categories:

Category Systolic (mm Hg) Diastolic (mm Hg)
Normal <120 and <80
Pre-hypertension 120 – 139 or 80 – 89
High blood pressure
Stage 1 140 – 159 or 90 – 99
Stage 2 ≥160 or ≥100


The heart is a muscular organ that pumps oxygen-rich blood to the entire body. It is made up of 4 chambers: 2 upper chambers called atria and 2 lower chambers called ventricles. The left ventricle is responsible for pumping oxygenated blood to the body. The pressure of blood against the arteries when the ventricle contracts is the systolic blood pressure. The dip in pressure when the ventricle relaxes to refill is the diastolic pressure.


Although the exact cause of high blood pressure is not clear, some factors can increase your risk of developing it:

  • Obesity
  • Lack of exercise
  • High salt content in your diet
  • Excessive alcohol consumption
  • Genetics
  • Older age
  • Smoking
  • Family history of high BP
  • Certain conditions such as chronic kidney disease and thyroid disorders


High blood pressure can go unnoticed for years, during which time it can damage your blood vessels, heart, kidneys and other organs. It can in turn lead to major health risks such as heart attacks, kidney failure, blindness, stroke and coronary heart diseases.


High blood pressure usually does not show any symptoms. You realize that you have hypertension only when pressures increase to dangerously high levels, and you begin to experience symptoms such as severe headaches, shortness of breath, severe anxiety and nosebleeds.


High blood pressure can be divided into 2 stages based on your blood pressure readings. A systolic blood pressure of 140-159 or diastolic pressure of 90-99 is considered stage 1, and systolic pressure of 160 and above and diastolic pressure of 100 and above is considered stage 2. Pressures of 120–139 systolic pressure and 80–89 diastolic pressure is considered prehypertension.


High blood pressure is diagnosed using a simple blood pressure test using an electronic sensor and a blood pressure cuff. This test is performed repeatedly to confirm high BP. If the readings are higher than 140/90 over time, you are likely to have high blood pressure.


When high blood pressure is left untreated it can lead to stroke, heart attack, heart failure, aneurysms (weak and bulged blood vessels), narrowing of blood vessels in the kidneys and eyes, and metabolic syndrome (high cholesterol and insulin levels).



High blood pressure can damage different organs of the body such as the brain, heart and kidneys. Various medications are prescribed to control high blood pressure. If a single drug is ineffective, a combination of two or more drugs may be used.


Simple lifestyle modifications can prevent the progression of pre-hypertension to hypertension and improve the efficacy of the prescribed medications. Some of the common lifestyle modifications include:

  • Weight loss in obese or overweight individuals
  • Regular exercise such as walking for 30- 60 minutes a day for at least 5 days a week
  • Eating a healthy diet rich in whole grains, nuts, fruits and vegetables, while restricting sweets, added sugar, saturated fats, cholesterol or total fats and dairy products
  • Reduction in salt intake to 2,300 mg/day in normal individuals and 1,500 mg/day in patients with high blood pressure
  • Abstinence from alcohol
  • Reduction in consumption of coffee or caffeinated beverages
  • Yoga or meditation to reduce stress and anxiety
  • Regular check-ups with your doctor, once every 6 -12 months or as recommended
  • Support from family and friends in the form of encouragement and motivation to improve adherence to these lifestyle changes.


Hypertension cannot be cured, but should be managed for the rest of your life. By taking your medications regularly and maintaining a good healthy lifestyle, you will be able to prevent the progression of the disease into probable life-threatening complications.

Read More: High Blood Pressure


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Prof. Peter R. Vale, MBBS FRACP FSCANZ



Professor of Medicine &
cardiovascular physician